Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the Chief Architect of Indian Constitution was a scholar par excellence, a philosopher, a visionary, an emancipator and a true nationalist. He led a number of social movements to secure human rights to the oppressed and depressed sections of the society. He stands as a symbol of struggle for social justice.
The below are the chronological list of important events of Babasaheb’s life starting from his birth on 14th April 1891 till his mahaparinirvan on 6th December 1956.
Datewise important Life events of Babasaheb.
|14th April 1891
|Born at Mahu (Madhya Pradesh), the fourteenth child of Subhedar Ramji Sakpal and Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar.
|Death of the mother, Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar
|Entered the Government High School at Satara.
|Entered the Elphinstone High School at Bombay.
|4th April 1906
|Married Ramabai daughter of Mr. Bhiku Walangkar, one of the relations of Gopal Baba Walangkar
|Passed Matriculation Examination, scored 382 marks out of 750.
|Honoured in a meeting presided over by Shri S K Bole, Shri K A (Dada) Keluskar Guruji presented a book on the life of Gautam Buddha written by him. Entered the Elphinstone College, Bombay.
|Birth of the son Yeshwant.
|Passed B.A Examination with Persian and English from University of Bombay, scored 449 marks out of 1000.
|Death of father Subhedar Ramji Maloji Ambedkar at Bombay.
|Gaikwad’s Scholar in the Columbia University, New York, reading in the Faculty of Political Science.
|5th June 1915
|Passed M.A. Examination majoring in Economics and with Sociology, History Philosophy, Anthropology and Politics asthe other subjects of study.
|Read a paper on The Castes in India’ before Prof. Goldernweiser’s Anthropology Seminar. The paper was later published in The Indian Antiquary in May 1917. It was also republished in the form of a brochure, the first published work of Dr Ambedkar. Wrote a Thesis entitled ‘The National Divident of India – A Historical and Analytical Study’ for the Ph.D Degree.
|Left Colombia University after completing work for the Ph.D, to join the London School of Economics and Political Science, London as a graduate student.
|Columbia University conferred a Degree of Ph.D.
|Return to India after spending a year in London working on the thesis for the M.Sc. (Econ) Degree. The return before completion of the work was necessitated by the termination the scholarship granted by the Baroda State.
|Appointed as Military Secretary to H.H. the Maharaja Gaikwar of Baroda with a view Finance Minister. But left shortly due to ill. Treatment meted out to him because of his lowly caste.Published “Small Holdings in India and Their Remedies”.
|Gave evidence before the Southborough Commission on Franchise. Attended the Conference of the depressed Classes held at Nagpur.
|Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics, Bombay.
|31st January 1920
|Started a Marathi Weekly paper Mooknayak to champion the cause of the depressed classes. Shri Nandram Bhatkar was the editor, later Shri Dyander Gholap was the editor.
|21st March 1920
|Attended depressed classes Conference held under the presidency of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj at Kolhapur.
|Resigned professorship at Sydenham College to resume his studies in London.
|Memorable speech in Nagpur, criticised Karmaveer Shinde and Depressed Classes Mission.
|Rejoined the London School of Economics. Also entered Gray’s Inn to read for the Bar.
|The thesis ‘Provincial Decentralisation of Imperial Finance in British India’ was accepted for M.Sc. (Econ) Degree by the London University.
|Spent some time in reading economics in the University of Bonn in Germany.
|The Thesis ‘The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution’ was accepted for the degree of D.Sc. (Econ.). The thesis was published in December 1923 by P S King & Company, London. Reissued by Thacker & Company, Bombay in May 1947 under the title History of Indian Currency and Banking Vol. 1.
|Called to the BAR.
|Returned to India.
|Started practice in the Bombay High Court.
|20th July 1924
|Founded the ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha’ for the uplift of the depressed classes. The aims of the Sabha were educate, agitate, organise.
|Published ‘The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India’ – dissertation on the provincial decentralisation of Imperial Finance in India’.Opened a hostel for Untouchable students at Barshi.
|Gave evidence before the Royal Commission on Indian Currency (Hilton Young Commisssion).Nominated Member of the Bombay Legislative Council.
|20th March 1927
|Started Satyagraha at Mahad (Dist Kolaba) to secure to the untouchables the Right of access to the Chavdar Tank.
|3rd April 1927
|Started a fortnightly Marathi paper Bahiskrit Bharat Dr Ambedkar himself was the editor.
|Established ‘Samaj Samata Sangh’.
|Second Conference in Mahad.
|Introduced the “Vatan Bill” in the Bombay Legislative Council.
|Gave evidence before the Indian Statutory Committee (Simon Commission).
|Professor. Government Law College Bombay.Principal. Government Law College Bombay.
|23rd October 1928
|Evidence of Dr. Ambedkar before the Indian Statutory Commission of the Simon Committee.
|2nd March 1930
|Satyagraha at Kalram Temple. Nasik to secure for the Untouchables the right of entry into the temple.
|Delegate. Round Table Conference representing Untouchables of India.
|Signed with Mr. M.K. Gandhi the Poona Pact giving up, to save Gandhi’s life. separate electorates granted to the Depressed Classes by Ramsay MacDonald’s Communal Award, and accepting, instead representation through joint electorates.
|Member joint Parliamentary Committee on the Indian Constitutional Reform.
|Left Parel, Damodar Hall and came to stay in ‘Rajagriha’ Dadar (Bombay). This was done in order to get more accommodation for his library which was increasing day by day.
|26th May 1935
|Death of wife. Mrs. Ramabai Ambedkar.
|Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as Principal of Government Law College, Bombay. He was also appointed Perry Professor of Jurisprudence.
|13th October 1935
|Historical Yeola Conversion Conference held under the Presidentship of Dr. Ambedkar at Yeola Dist., Nasik. He exhorted the Depressed Classes to leave Hinduism and embrace another religion. He declared: ‘I was born as a Hindu but I will not die as a Hindu’. He also advisedhisfollowers to abandon the Kalaram Mandi entry Satyagriha, Nasik.
|Dr. Ambedkar was invited by the Jat Pat Todak Mandal of Lahore to preside over the Conference. Dr.Ambedkar prepared his historical speech. The Annihilation of Caste’. The conference was cancelled by the Mandal on the ground that Dr.Ambedkar’s thoughts were revolutionary. Finally, Dr. Ambedkar refused to preside and published his speech in book form in 1937.
|12-13th January 1936
|The Depressed Classes Conference was held at Pune.Dr. Ambedkar reiterated his resolve of the Yeola Conference to leave Hinduism. The conference was presided over by Rav Bahadur N. Shina Raj.
|29th Febraury 1936
|Dr. Ambedkar’s Conversion Resolution was supported by the Chambars (Cobblers) of East Khandesh.
|30th May 1936
|Bombay Presidency Conversion Conference (Mumbai Elaka Mahar Panshad) of Mahars was held at Naigaum (Dadar) to sound their opinion on the issue of Conversion. Mr. Subha Rao, popularly known as Hydrabadi Ambedkar, presided over the Conference. In the morning the Ascetics shaved their beards, moustaches and destroyed their symbols of Hinduism in an Ascetic’s Conference.
|15th June 1936
|Conference of Devadasis was held m Bombay to support Dr. Ambedkar’s Resolution of Conversion.
|18th June 1936
|Dr. Ambedkar-Dr. Moonje talks on conversion. Pro Sikkhism.
|23rd June 1936
|Matang Parishad in support of Conversion.
|Dr. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, a strong opposition party in Bombay’s Legislative Council.
|18 September 1936
|Dr.Ambedkar sent a delegation of 13 members to the Golden Temple Amritsar to study Sikkhism.
|11th November 1936
|Dr.Ambedkar left for Geneva and London.
|Dr.Ambedkar organised the ‘Municipal Workers’ Union’ Bombay in 1937.
|14th January 1937
|Dr. Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
|17th Febraury 1937
|The First General Elections were held under the Govt. of India Act of 1935. Dr. Ambedkar was elected Member of Bombay Legislative Assembly (Total Seats 175. Reserved Seats 15. Dr. Ambedkar’s Independent Labour Party won 17 seats.)
|17th March 1937
|The Mahad Chowdar Tank case was decided in favour of D.C. by which they got a legal right to use the public wells and tanks.
|31st July 1937
|Dr. Ambedkar received a grand reception at Chalisgaon Railway station.
|17th September 1937
|Dr. Ambedkar introduced his Bill to abolish the Mahar Watan in the Assembly
|31st December 1937
|Reception at Pandhapur on the way to Solapur, where he was going to preside over the Solapur District D.C’. Conference.
|4th January 1938
|Reception given by the Solapur Municipal Council.
|The Congress Party introduced a Bill making a change in the name of Untouchables. i.e. they would be called Harijans meaning sons of God. Dr. Ambedkar criticised the Bill. as in his opinion the change of name would make no real change in their conditions. Dr. Ambedkar and Bhaurav Gaikwad protested against the use of the term Harijans in legal matters. When the ruling party by sheer force of numbers defeated the I.L.P., the Labour-Party group walked out of the Assembly in protest under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar. He organised peasants march on Bombay Assembly. The peasants demanded the passing of Dr. Ambedkar’s Bill for abolition of the Khoti system.
|23rd January 1938
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed a Peasants’ Conference at Ahmedabad.
|12-13th Febraury 1938
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed a historical Conference of Railway workers at Manmad (Dist. Nasik).
|Dr. Ambedkar opposed creation of a separate Karnataka State in the national interest.
|Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the Principal-ship of the Government Law College, Bombay.
|12-13th May 1938
|Dr. Ambedkar went on tour of Konkan Region. He also went to Nagpur in connection with a court case.
|A meeting was held at R.M. Bhat High School, Bombay for exposing Gandhiji’s attitude in disallowing a D.C. man being taken into the Central Ministry.
|Dr. Ambedkar spoke on the Industrial Disputes Bill in the Bombay Assembly. He bitterly opposed it for its attempt to outlaw the right of workers to strike. He said: If Congressmen believe that Swaraj is their birth-right, then the right to strike is the birth-right of workers.
|1st October 1938
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Bawala, near Ahmedabad. On return he addressed another meeting at Premabhai Hall, Ahmedabad.
|6th November 1938
|The Industrial Workers strike. The procession (under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar, Nirnkar, Dange, Pasulkar etc) was organised from Kamgar Maidan to Jambori Maidan, Worli. Dr.Ambedkar toured the workers areas with Jamvadas Mehta.
|10th November 1938
|Dr. Ambedkar moved a Resolution for adoption of the methods for birth-control in the Bombay Assembly.
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed the first D.C. Conference in Nizam’s dominion at Mahad.
|18th January 1939
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Rajkot
|19th January 1939
|29th January 1939
|Kale Memorial Lecture of Gorkhale School of Politics and Economics, Poona reviewing critically the All India Federation Scheme set out in the Govt. of India Act of 1935. The speech was issued in March 1939 as a tract for the times under the title ‘Federation v/s Freedom’.
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed a meeting organised for Rohidas Vidya Committee.
|Dr.Ambedkar-Nehru first meeting.
|The Conference at Haregaon was held under the Presidentship of Dr.Ambedkar to voice the grievances of Mahar and Mahar Watandass
|Dr. Ambedkar founded the ‘Mahar Panchayat’.
|22nd July 1940
|Netaji Subash Chandra Bose met Dr. Ambedkar in Bombay.
|Dr. Ambedkar published his Thoughts on Pakistan. The second edition with the title Pakistan or Partition of Indiawas issued in February 1945. A third impression of the book was published in 1946 under the title India’s Political What’s What: Pakistan or Partition of India.
|Dr.Ambedkar pursued the issue of recruitment of Mahars in the Army. In result the Mahars Battallion was formed
|25th May 1941
|Mahar Dynast Panchayat Samiti was Formed by Dr. Ambedkar.
|Dr.Ambedkar was appointed to sit on the Defence Advisory Committee.
|The Conference was held at Sinnar in protest of tax on Mahar Watams. Dr.Ambedkar launched a no-tax campaign. He saw the Governor. Finally, the tax was abolished. The Mumbai Elaka Conference of Mahars, Mangs and Derdasis were organised under the Chairmanship of Dr.Ambedkar
|Dr. Ambedkar founded the All India Scheduled Castes Federation in Nagpur.
|18th July 1942
|Dr. Ambedkar addressed All India D.C. Conference at Nagpur.
|20th July 1942
|Dr.Ambedkar joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council as a Labour Member
|Dr. Ambedkar submitted a paper on “The problems of the Untouchables in India” to the Institute of Pacific Relations at its Conference held in Canada. The paper is printed in the proceedings of the Conference. The paper was subsequently published in December 1943 in the book form under the title Mr Gandhi and Emancipation of the Untouchables.
|19th January 1943
|Dr. Ambedkar delivered a Presidential address on the occasion of the 101st Birth Anniversary of Justice Mahader Govind Ranade. It is published in book form in April 1943 under the titleRanade. Gandhi and Jinnah.
|Dr. Ambedkar founded “The Building Trust and the Scheduled Caste Improvement Trust”.
|6th May 1944
|Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Annual Conference of the All India S.C. Federation at Parel (Bombay) The speech was later published under the title “The Communal Deadlock and a way to solve it.
|Dr.Ambedkar published his book What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables – a complete compendium of information regarding the movement of the Untouchables for political safeguards. Dr.Ambedkar attended the Simla Conference.
|Dr Ambedkar founded ‘People’s Education Society’ in Bombay.
|Opening of Siddharth College of Arts and Science in Bombay
|The Bharat Bhushan Printing Press (founded by Dr Ambedkar) was burnt down in the clashes between D.C. and the Caste-Hindus
|20th June 1946
|Siddharth College started
|Dr Ambedkar went to London to urge before the British Government and the Opposition Party the need to provide safeguards for the D.C., on grant of Independence to India and thus to rectify the wrongs done to the D.C. by the Cabinet Mission.
|13th October 1946
|Dr Ambedkar published his book. Who were Shudras? An enquiry into how the Shudras came to be the fourth Varna in the Indo-Aryan Society.Dr Ambedkar was elected Member of the Constitution Assembly of India.
|Dr Ambedkar’s First speech in the Constituent Assembly. He called for a ‘strong and United India’.
|Published ‘States and Minorities’. A memorandum of Fundamental Rights, Minority Rights, safeguards for the D.C. and on the problems of Indian states.
|29th April 1947
|Article 17 of the Constitution of India for the abolition of Untouchability was moved by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the Constituent Assembly and it was passed.
|15th August 1947
|India obtained her Independence. Dr Ambedkar was elected to the Constituent Assembly by the Bombay Legislature Congress Party. Dr Ambedkar joined Nehru’s Cabinet. He became the First Law Minister of Independent India. The Constituent Assembly appointed him to the drafting Committee, which elected him as a Chairman on 29th August 1947.
|Dr Ambedkar completed the Draft Constitution of Indian Republic.
|15th April 1948
|Second marriage – Dr Ambedkar married Dr Sharda Kabir in Delhi.
|Published his book The Untouchables. A thesis on the origin of Untouchability. Dr Ambedkar submitted his Memorandum, “Maharashtra as a linguistic Province” to the Dhar Commission. The Linguistic Provinces Commission).
|4th October 1948
|Dr.Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution to Constituent Assembly.
|20th November 1948
|The Constituent Assembly adopted Article 17 of the Constitution for the abolition of Untouchability.
|Dr Ambedkar, Law Minister of India visited Hydrabad (Deccan)
|15th January 1949
|Dr Ambedkar was presented with a Purse at Manmad by his admirers. He addressed a large gathering.
|21st January 1949
|He stayed at Aurangabad in connection with his opening proposed College. During the stay he visited Ajanta – Ellora Caves.
|Dr Ambedkar visited Bombay in connection with College work and for a medical check-up.
|Meeting between Dr Ambedkar and Madhavrao Golvalker, Chief of RRs and the residence of Dr Ambedkar at Delhi.
|Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for college work meeting and medical check-up.
|Dr Ambedkar addressed the Constituent Assembly.
|26th November 1949
|Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution. Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for check-up.
|11th January 1950
|Dr Ambedkar addressed the Siddharth College Parliament on the Hindu Code Bill. In the evening he was presented with a silver casket containing a copy of the Indian Constitution at Nare Park Maidan, Bombay.
|Dr Ambedkar’s article The Buddha and the Future His Religion’ was published in the journal of Mahabodhi Society, Calcutta. Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Young Men’s Buddhist Association on “The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women”. Dr Ambedkar spoke on the “Merits of Buddhism” at the meeting arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti in Delhi.
|1st September 1950
|Dr Rajendra Prasad, the First President of the Indian Republic laid the foundation stone of Milind Maharidyalaya, Aurangabad. Dr.Ambedkar delivered a speech on the occasion (The printed speech is available with Mr Surwade)
|Dr Ambedkar went to Colombo as a Delegate to the World Buddhist Conference.
|5th Febraury 1951
|Dr.Ambedkar, Law Minister introduced his “Hindu Code Bill” in the Parliament.
|15th April 1951
|Dr Ambedkar laid the foundation stone of “Dr Ambedkar Bhavan”. Delhi.
|Dr Ambedkar founded “The Bhartiya Buddha Jansangh”.
|Dr Ambedkar compiled a Buddhist prayer book Buddha Upasana Palha
|9th September 1951
|Dr Ambedkar resigned from the Nehru Cabinet because, among other reasons, the withdrawal of Cabinet support to the Hindu Code Bill in spite of the earlier declaration in the Parliament by the Prime Minister Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, that his Government would stand or fall with the Hindu Code Bill. Apart from this Nehru announced that he will sink or swim with the Hindu Code Bill.Dr Ambedkar published his speech in book form under the title The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women.
|19th September 1951
|The marriage and divorce Bill was discussed in the Parliament.
|11th October 1951
|Dr Ambedkar left the Cabinet.
|Dr Ambedkar was defeated in the First Lok Sabha elections held under the Constitution of Indian Republic. Congress candidate N. S. Kajrolkar defeated Dr Ambedkar.
|Dr Ambedkar was introduced into Parliament as a member of the Council (Rajya Sabha) of States, representing Bombay.
|1st June 1952
|Dr Ambedkar left for New York from Bombay.
|5th June 1952
|Columbia University (USA) conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D., in its Bi-Centennial Celebrations Special Convocation held in New York.
|16th June 1952
|Dr Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
|16th December 1952
|Dr Ambedkar addressed Annual Social Gathering of Elphinstone College, Bombay.
|22nd December 1952
|Dr Ambedkar delivered a talk on “Conditions Precedent to the Successful working of Democracy” at the Bar Council, Pune.
|12th January 1953
|The Osmania University conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D on Dr Ambedkar.
|The Untouchability (offences) Bill was introduced in the Parliament by the Nehru Government.
|Dr Ambedkar contested the By-Election for Lok Sabha from Bhandara Constituency of Vidarbha Region but was defeated Congress Candidate Mr Borkar.
|Opening of Siddharth College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay.
|Dr Ambedkar inaugurated the All India Conference of Sai devotees at the St. X’avier’s Maidan Parel Bombay (His inaugural speech is available with Mr Surwade)
|Dr Ambedkar visited Rangoon to attend the function arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti.
|The Maharaja of Mysore donated 5 acres of land for Dr Ambedkar’s proposed Buddhist Seminary to be started at Bangalore
|16th September 1954
|Dr Ambedkar spoke on the Untouchability (Offences) Bill in the Rajya Sabha
|3rd October 1954
|Dr. Ambedkar broadcast his talk “My Personal Philosophy”
|29th October 1954
|Shri R. D. Bhandare, President of Bombay Pradesh S.C. Federation presented a purse of Rs 118,000 on behalf of S.C.F. to Dr Ambedkar at Purandare Stadium, Naigaum (Bombay)
|Dr Ambedkar participated as delegate to the 3rd World Buddhist Conference at Rangoon.
|3rd April 1955
|Delivered a speech “Why Religion is necessary”.
|Dr Ambedkar established Bhartiya Bauddha Mahasabha (The Buddhist Society of India).
|Founded ‘Murnbai Rajya KanishthaGarkamgart Association’
|Published his opinions on linguistic states in book form under the title Thoughts on linguistic States.
|Dr Ambedkar installed an image of Buddha at Dehu Road (near Pune)
|27th December 1955
|Dr Ambedkar spoke against reservation of seats in the State and Central Legislatures.
|Dr Ambedkar completed his The Buddha and His Dhamma, Revolution & Counter-revolution in Ancient India.
|15th March 1956
|Dr Ambedkar wrote and dictated the Preface of The Buddha and His Dhamma.
|1st May 1956
|Dr Ambedkar spoke on Linguistic states in the Council of States.Dr Ambedkar spoke on BBC London on “Why I like Buddhism”, Also, he spoke for Voice Voice of America on “The Future of Indian Democracy”.
|24th May 1956
|Dr Ambedkar attended a meeting at Nare Park organised on the eve of Buddha Jayanti, Shri B.G.Kher, Prime Minister of Bombay was Chief Guest. This meeting was the last meeting of Dr Ambedkar in Bombay.
|Opening of Siddharth College of Law in Bombay.
|14th October 1956
|Dr Ambedkar embraced Buddhism at an historic ceremony at Nagpur(Now known as - Diksha Bhoomi) with his millions of followers. Prescribed 22 vows to his followers so that there may be complete severance of bond with Hinduism.
|20th November 1956
|Delegate, 4th World Buddhist Conference, Khalinandu, where he delivered his famous speech famous speech ‘Buddha or Karl Marx’.
|6th December 1956
|Maha Nirvana at his residence, 26 Alipore Road,New Delhi.
|7th December 1956
|Cremation at Dadar Chawpatti – Now known as Chaitya Bhoomi